Softball Strength Program by Champion Performance

At Home Softball Strength Programming

While you're stuck at home over the next few weeks, you're likely looking for ways to improve your game. Although, you might be quick to pick up a ball and bat and get in a little practice, don't neglect the importance of strength and conditioning. You can follow this two-day softball strength program by Nick Esposito of Champion Performance with little to no equipment. For the few exercises that require a dumbbell or medicine ball, you can get creative with household items to provide some resistance.

Generally, strength and conditioning are vastly overlooked in our sport, specifically for younger athletes, so now is a great time to introduce them to this series of bodyweight exercises and stretches. Nick specifically designed this program with softball players in mind to increase their flexibility, mobility, and core strength.

The program comes with videos of each exercise to limit the guesswork as well as specific cues and instructions on each video. Check out the complete two-day program with videos by clicking the softball icon below.

Softball Strength Programming Example 1
Softball Strength Programming Example 3
Softball Strength Programming Example 2
Softball Strength Programming Example 4

Enjoying the 2-Day Program? Check out the link below for more from Nick: https://espositostrengthclub.com/


Why is Leg Drive Important?

Learning to utilize a proper leg drive is one of the most challenging parts of pitching. Many young pitchers struggle to feel or understand what creates power through the initial drive off the mound. An adequate drive sets up your body positioning throughout your pitch, so it is something that every pitcher should be aware of and work to improve. If you cannot consistently produce a drive that is both powerful and direct, other parts of the pitch will likely be affected, producing pitches with lower velocities and less accuracy.

Load and Explode - Hip Hinge to Hip Extension

To initiate a great drive, it\'s important to understand how to properly load the legs. Much like hitting, loading the legs requires a hinge at the hips. A hip hinge is achieved by creating flexion in the hip joints, in other words, driving the hips back. A hip hinge can also be coupled with a bend of the knees which helps create a more balanced weight distribution (Fleur, Taco Fleur, & Girevoy Sport Institute Kettlebell 2019).

Hip Hinge

Points of Emphasis

  1. Maintain three points of contact (head, mid-back, and tailbone) with the dowel rod while creating a hinge pattern.
  2. Keep your core engaged, allowing your hips to drive back without arching the lower back.
  3. As you drive your hips back, you should feel a load in the glutes and hamstrings.

Hip Extension

Now that you understand the importance of hinging at the hips and know how to complete that movement, what\'s next? The hinge is the initial loading of the backside of the legs (glutes and hamstrings). After the pitcher has loaded her legs, she also needs to complete her drive by extending the hips forward. To do so, she will have to engage the glutes, creating a thrusting motion that propels the drive leg out and the stride leg up and out.

Below, I've shared one of my favorite drills to teach both a hip hinge and proper extension.

Points of Emphasis

  1. Our goal here is to learn how to implement a proper hinge while on the rubber and transition that movement into hip extension.
  2. You will have some freedom within this drill to go through your pre-motion as necessary.
  3. If you feel your hip crease tighten around the dowel rod and keep your core engaged, you should feel tension through the glutes, letting you know that you've loaded properly.
  4. Once you're able to create a proper hinge, powerfully extend your hips forward into a drive.
  5. We are looking to maintain direction down the powerline while completing this drill, allowing the pitcher to land with a slight bend in the stride knee to create stability.

Exercises to Improve Stability and Power

Pitching is an extremely complex movement that requires strength and stability. The drills above will help a pitcher understand the positions she needs to get into; however, it's necessary to complete other exercises to strengthen the areas needed to complete correct movements as well as increase power. Below, I share a few exercises that help pitchers activate their glutes and create body awareness.

Hip March

I like to utilize hip marches for a few reasons:

  1. This exercise activates the glutes, allowing the pitcher to understand how to engage the backside of the legs while contracting the core.
  2. Although we're not in a pitching specific position in this exercise, I use it to help teach my students achieve an understanding of how to thrust from a single leg position without arching their back.
  3. It's also important for a pitcher to control the leg that's driving up without coming across their midline. This relates to pitching specifically, as a pitcher should drive and land with their toes in a more forward position rather than sideways.

Kettlebell Swings

Kettlebell swings are sometimes known as the king (or queen) of all exercises. A proper kettlebell swing requires a hip thrust that uses your glutes and hamstrings. This is similar to the thrust we are looking to create during the drive of the pitching motion. To make this more pitching specific, you could start in your split pitching stance, and transition from a hinge position to extension while using a small dumbbell or kettlebell in both hands.

Anti- Rotation Lift-Offs

Anti-rotation lift-offs are quickly becoming my favorite exercise to incorporate into lessons. By strengthening control through the pelvis and hip regions, we are affecting the ability to control this area while pitching. If a pitcher can't control their hips and core in a standing position, imagine how difficult it would be to control while throwing a softball at a high velocity.

Train the Movement

I wanted to share these drills as a way to bridge the gap between pitching and strength training. These are not the most difficult exercises, but they are helpful to create an understanding of different movements within the pitching motion. It's important to prioritize your stability and body awareness in any activity, and I often find that many pitchers lack the stability to control their movements while pitching. If you want to get better faster, get involved with a strength training program, and at the very least start to incorporate different core strengthening and glute activation exercises at home.


Fleur, Taco, et al. \"True and Clear Definition of the Squat and Hip Hinge Exercise.\" Kettlebell Workouts, Exercises, Courses, and More by Cavemantraining, 13 Feb. 2019, www.cavemantraining.com/caveman-bodyweight/true-definition-of-the-squat-and-hip-hinge-exercise/.

Off-Season Strength Training: Four Points to Consider

Many families come to skills lessons and want to know more about off-season strength training and running for their youth athlete, daughter or son. I have collected below four points that I touch on when the conversations drift toward performance training.

Stay Athletic

There is such a thing as overdoing the mechanical practice of every pitch, swing, and ground ball, even at the youth level. The best thing we can teach our sons and daughters to do is to move correctly and to keep moving. My next sentence will make some sport specialization proponents squirm. PLAY OTHER SPORTS! Base the sport that the athlete is engaged with, on the seasons. Specialization is for the birds, burnout is very real, and in the end, we are all humans that will grow into adults. Not everyone will be a collegiate athlete, but take faith in that these young ones will absolutely be adults someday who have to operate in their bodies. It is best they find out how to make them work now! Take some time off from the sport of choice, but keep moving!

Good Movement Matters

Should the youth athlete in question wish to participate in only one sport ever (this is truly rare), then my next suggestion is to find someone who knows youth performance training in your area. At Frozen Ropes Hershey, athletes of every age are coached through basic good movement patterns in their warm-up and even within the skills session itself. Athletes are guided through bear crawls, planks, supine bridges, inchworms, burpees, triceps pushups, isometric squats, and instruction on landing properly from a jump. Whether or not the athlete comes to me for pitching, hitting, or catching, I insert a few easy to follow movements in every session, that will not only teach them something about the skill they want to learn, but will also stealthily make them stronger or begin to create good movements patterns. The athletes get stronger and more stable without even knowing it.

Core is Queen (or King)

Your \"core\" (basically everything on your body from the top of your shoulders, to below your butt) holds all your organs in place but it also aids in movement and prevents injury. Your core is also what will hold you upright after the competitive sports are finished. It is the backbone of movement. Because it is so important, it is ok not only to start with core work before your regular skills sessions but also to practice some kind of core work every day. Go for stability at the beginning so pick something that you can hold for a while and with good alignment. Planks and side planks are so very effective in this arena, and even the professionals and collegiate athletes I have coached will do them.

A Little Bit Goes a Long Way

I could hit you with a few more sports clichés, but I\'ll abstain. In youth performance training, we want to make sure that the structure is there before we add resistance. Gravity really does count as resistance, and that should be where many young athletes spend time before loading up a bar and hammering out some next-level deadlifts. I usually start talking about athletes engaging in some kind of guided movement training around the ages of 12-13. Because of the instruction I offer in lessons I can usually tell when an athlete could benefit from hitting the weight room, but also when they are physically capable of handling the added focus of building strength

Final Thoughts

Everyone can benefit from performance training, even adults. It doesn\'t matter if your particular trajectory takes you to the collegiate ranks, professional realm, or just allows you to kick tail in your adult cycling classes. I have had athletes who have come to me for softball skills lessons, were then introduced to the weight room, and ended up moving onto being stars on their track teams instead. The confidence some athletes find in the weight room permeates all other aspects of their lives, not just their sports. I have seen even the timidest of athletes come alive when they set a personal best, or finally get their first full pull-up. It is worth investigating for your youth athlete, but it is worth investigating for yourself as well.

Speed vs. Accuracy

There has always been this question in pitching, what makes a pitcher great? At a young age, what should a pitcher focus on first, speed or accuracy? To me, this is an interesting question because both of these outcomes are influenced by the same process, learning how to move properly throughout the pitching motion. 

So, instead of instructing pitchers based on developing either speed or accuracy, why not teach them to move properly? By doing so, you are now setting the pitcher up to be able to complete consistent movements that then allow them to throw strikes while also moving at full speed.

Movement Over Mechanics

Throughout the years, there have been differing opinions on \"proper pitching mechanics\". Often, instructors may teach based on what they believed they did or what they felt or thought about doing in their motion rather than how they actually threw. Hitting instructors are experiencing the same realization. What we used to believe, is now being disproved left and right. Now that we have various forms of technology, the simplest being slow-motion video, it is easy to see what high-level pitchers and hitters are actually achieving. Does every elite player move the same? No, but we have found that there are optimal ways to move.

Developing Better Movers

Now, much more goes into moving properly than just pitching. Pitching is a complex movement that requires the pitcher to move through multiple planes of motion, yet we expect young pitchers to complete this movement with ease, or even to make adjustments quickly. However, many pitchers at the youth level and even many high school age pitchers, are not able to complete many functional strength movements properly. They lack core strength, shoulder stability and much more, so rather than asking them to consistently complete movements that they are not strong enough to do, why not encourage them to invest in their strength, flexibility, and mobility?

Arm Care - Speed vs Accuracy

Expanding our Knowledge at SR

There are a variety of ways an athlete can train various muscles and work to gain strength. At Softball Rebellion, we have partnered with Nick Esposito of Esposito Strength Club to provide our athletes with an online performance plan to help them develop the strength and stability needed to move better and therefore pitch better. Nick has also provided our pitchers with an upper and lower body dynamic warm-up that they must complete prior to beginning their lesson. To check out our warm-up routine, click here.

Currently, we\'re in the process of partnering with Upright Athlete, a physical therapy and sports performance clinic in Durham so that we can further develop our pitchers in all capacities. All of these aspects along with our lesson format allows for our pitchers to develop a further understanding of how to move properly and how that affects their pitching.

Incorporating Movement to Increase Speed and Accuracy

Now, let\'s circle back around to our original topic, speed vs. accuracy. Once a pitcher has a better understanding of how to move and is more stable to do so, there are times where we want to train speed and also when we want to create game-like situations that incorporate and train accuracy.


When training specifically to increase speed, completing speed drills, for example, we can not also expect accuracy. If a pitcher is working on developing more speed but is also expected to throw a strike every time, she will never push past her limits. So, in these moments we work to train speed specifically without focusing on location. If a pitcher\'s movements line-up on time while working on speed, she\'ll still throw the ball with decent control; however, I wouldn't ask a pitcher to hit a specific spot while training speed. The combination of strength and stability a pitcher will develop through functional movement should assist her not only in creating better, more fluid movements but also in increasing speed.


This is where training gets even more fun for athletes who move well. I often find that when pitchers try to \"aim\" or \"place the ball\" they slow down, and they still struggle to throw strikes. Their mind takes over and instead of just throwing, they think about every little thing they need to do to try and throw a strike. Now, they\'re pitching slower AND they\'re inaccurate. Instead, allow your pitchers to complete the task of throwing to different locations while moving at full speed. Encourage them to be explosive and allow them to free their minds from thinking about mechanics and instead work to achieve a task, like throwing through an area in the pitcher\'s pocket or throwing seven strikes out of ten. Challenge them to stay somewhat under control but still stay explosive. Then, they will learn how to create consistency within their motion, develop accuracy, and still throw at their average or top speed.

Combining Speed and Accuracy

Now that we\'ve talked about working on accuracy by giving pitcher\'s tasks to accomplish, it\'s important to understand that we can also shoot for a speed goal at the same time. For instance, I tell my pitchers that I want them to stay within 2-3 mph of their top speed on every pitch. So, if they are able to hit 63 mph multiple times (multiple times being important here), I want them to stay within the 60\'s on every pitch. Let's say that same pitcher has hit 65 once and only once without showing me that they can repeat that speed, I will not ask them to stay within 2-3 mph of 65, instead, I\'ll ask them to try to stay within 2-3 mph of their average speed, which might be 64. So, in the bullpen, I would say, your goal is to throw seven out of ten pitches through the zone, but they only count if they are within 2-3 mph of your average/ top speed.

Creating Athletic Pitchers

Overall, I hope this article has made you question how you or your athlete train. Does your pitcher move well? Could they move better? I\'ll be the first to say, I am still learning. I don\'t have all the answers, but I\'m trying to incorporate important aspects of physical development with our pitchers as often as possible, and I\'m committed to learning more to help put them into better positions.

I encourage you to do the same. It\'s worth investing time and money into a program that will not only make your pitcher better but also keep her healthy. The more you understand the importance of movement and body control, the easier it is to make quick adjustments. Remember, pitchers are athletes and they should be trained like athletes. If you\'re only pitching with little to no outside training, you\'re missing out on development.

The Importance of Goal Setting

As we ring in the new year, there is talk of new year\'s resolutions and changing mindsets, but I want to talk about the importance of setting goals, specifically pitching goals. See, to me resolutions and goals are a bit different. Resolutions are things that often seem solitary, they\'re set once and never changed. They typically don\'t evolve throughout the year, and they may be forgotten or given up on, but they are a reminder of what you\'d like to become or what you\'d like to focus on. Don\'t get me wrong resolutions are great, but I think goals are better, and here\'s why.

Goal-Oriented Growth Mindset

Goals are ever-changing, once you reach one, you set another, and you continue to grow with and through your achievements. As a pitcher, you should always be evolving, always searching for ways to improve, all while acknowledging that you\'ve hit your goals along the way. Through my lessons, I\'ve had pitchers come in one day and state, \"I\'m going to hit 43 today!\", and then they do it. There\'s something special about setting your mind to an act or a goal, it tells your mind and your body, \"Hey, let\'s do this!\" I\'ve also had other pitchers who typically come in quietly, put their work in, and leave the facility. They, often, are a bit less focused than the pitchers who I mentioned above. Sure, they get better, but it usually is at a slower pace than those who openly stated their goal for that day.

Every pitcher is different, I acknowledge that. Just because a pitcher is quiet doesn\'t mean she doesn\'t have that special fire inside her. When I don\'t hear her state a goal, it doesn\'t mean she doesn\'t have one, but I think it\'s far more powerful when we voice our goals. Then, once she\'s allowed herself to say it out loud, I believe she is more likely to hold herself accountable. The goal is no longer just a thought in her head, something she might like to accomplish. Instead, it\'s something tangible, that her support system (mom, dad, coaches, teammates and friends) can help her accomplish.

Short-Term and Long-Term Goals

So, I hope that those few paragraphs encouraged you to create some goals, or maybe encouraged you to speak to your pitcher or pitchers about goal setting. Now is the perfect time to do so, as most players are typically in the middle of their off-season. Maybe you took some much deserved time off during the holidays and it\'s time to get back on track with your practice schedule. As you set goals, it\'s important to set both short-term goals and long-term goals. This gives you some boxes to check along your journey so that you know you\'re trending in the right direction. 

Short-Term Goals

Each of your short term goals should help you reach that long-term goal. These benchmarks will help keep you motivated week to week or even day-to-day. Below are a few examples of short-term goals for pitchers.

We all have those big numbers in mind that we\'d like to show up on the radar. Maybe it\'s 60 mph, or maybe it\'s 45. Those numbers are great, but often your average velocity is more important. This is the velocity that you can rely on showing up consistently, not a number you hit once in a blue moon. To track your average velocity, write down the velocity of every full pitch you throw during that bullpen, or you track your last 20 pitches of the day and divide the total number by the number of pitches thrown.

Need help tracking your average velocity and strike percentage? Click on the red softball above for a printable bullpen chart.

Long-Term Goals

I would argue that your short-term goals are the most important, as they will contribute to your long-term success. That being said, it\'s important to set some BIG goals as well. These goals should naturally take a bit longer to obtain, so make sure to acknowledge your small victories along the way. If you see continued progress towards your long-term goals, even a little, you\'re on the right track.

Above I mentioned that your average velocity is the most important, and it is, but we want to reach for the stars (sorry for the corny metaphor). Ultimately, once we hit that big number, you should then aim to make that your average, or at least close the gap. Maybe you want to gain 5 mph this year, or maybe you want to gain more. Depending on your age and your current speed, you may be able to gain 5 or more mph in a year. Set a reasonable but exciting goal, and plan out how you\'re going to achieve it.

Reaching your Goals

Setting goals is great, but we set goals in order to achieve them, so it\'s important to make a road map or a checklist for obtaining your goals. If you can paint a clear picture of what you need to do to reach each individual goal, it will be far easier to achieve them.

  • Start by creating a list of 3-5 short term goals. Think about what it will take to achieve them, and write it down underneath your goal.
  • Do the same for your long-term goals.
  • As I mentioned before, your short term-goals should help you achieve your long-term goals, so make sure they coincide.
  • Finally, create a checklist (make it big) so that you can visibly see the progress you\'re making. Remember to pat yourself on the back.

Big dreams and goals are never accomplished in one day but instead little by little with great investment and attention to detail.

Dominate on the Diamond with our Christmas Favorites

Christmas is just a week away, and if you're anything like me, you might still have some Christmas shopping left to do. Whether your daughter is at the youth level or preparing for her last few years of travel or high school softball, essential training tools are gifts that keep on giving. Below you'll find our favorite training tools at Softball Rebellion for pitchers, hitters, and even a few fun additions for stocking stuffers!

**Links to each article can be found by clicking the title of each picture**

Pitcher Must-Haves

Pitching essentials are a little different depending on what level your daughter is at, but I'll start with the basics. Earlier this week, I wrote an article featuring three indoor pitching drills, and I mentioned throwing into a close-up net as a great option for offseason training. To do so, it's helpful to know which nets to buy. There are tons of net options out there, but what you'll want to buy will vary based on the space you have to throw in and what your pitcher is trying to accomplish.

Nets and Target Training

Bownet is known for making a variety of easy to assemble netting options. This particular net stands at just 6' tall, making it a perfect net for indoor or outdoor training. You can set it up in a matter of minutes and take it back down after you finish your bullpen. For a visual representation of the strike zone, you can also purchase their Zone-Counter attachment.

Developmental Essentials

You may have noticed, most of the balls we use when throwing or doing drill work have a tape-line on them. It's extremely important that a pitcher understands what type of spin she generates on each pitch. This also holds true for overhand throwing. Adding a tape-line makes it easier for a pitcher to see her spin and understand the adjustments she needs to make. Now, you can certainly add a tape-line yourself using electrical tape, but if you're looking for a ball that already has the tape-line, Spin-Line Softballs are the way to go. They also have great seams, and we all know pitchers love great seams!

Homerun Gifts for Hitters

There are TONS and I mean TONS of gifts you could purchase for your favorite hitter. I'm sure a new bat is one of the gifts that seems like it's always on the list, but I'm going to keep the focus on a few other tools that will aid in your hitter's development. Now, I am a little biased, as we sell hitting products at Softball and Baseball Rebellion, so I will add a few of those, but mostly I'll focus on products outside of what we sell.

Blast Motion has been the most accurate and well-known swing analyzer for the past few years. There is no better way to make adjustments pitch to pitch than to see a visual and numerical representation of what is actually happening within your swing. With Blast, hitters no longer have to guess how they got to contact or only go by feel. Instead, they have real data that you can view right on your phone immediately after each swing. It's as easy as popping the sensor on your bat, setting up the app, and swinging away.

Stocking Stuffers

I always loved opening my stocking on Christmas morning. It might be filled with much-needed hair ties or quite a bit of candy, but if you're looking for a few softball-related stocking stuffers, I've compiled a few things your softball player could enjoy on or off the field. From colorful bat grips to softball inspired t-shirts, keep the softball theme going with a little added flair.

Improve your Pitching Technique Indoors this Off-season

Oftentimes when talking about off-season training, I hear that it's too cold to get outside or there just isn't enough time to practice. Although I can't argue that the temperatures have dropped and there's not much daylight left once school gets out, there are plenty of simple drills that you can complete indoors. The fact is, you don't always need to throw full distance to improve your mechanics or your speed. Instead, spend a few days a week completing the following drills to enhance your form.

All you'll need for these drills is eight to ten feet of space and a net or tarp.

Elbow Leading Arm Circles

I don't actually call this drill "elbow-leading arm circles", but it's something important to emphasize for a correct and efficient arm path. Many pitchers have heard the term "whip", but often it's taught incorrectly or poorly understood. You can only create a true whip when your elbow leads your arm circle in the downswing of your motion. If instead, you are pushing the ball down or "palm-down" at the 9 o'clock position your arm will remain stiff and straight, leading to a lack of whip.

As you master your stationary arm-circles, it's important to achieve the same form during your full pitch. There are a few key factors that contribute to arm whip, so keep these in mind as you work on incorporating this arm path into your pitch.

  • If you land with too much of your weight forward and your front shoulder drops below your back shoulder, you will have a hard time leading with your elbow. This often contributes to "pushing the ball"
  • To combat this, ensure your initial drive off the mound is solid and focus on stabilizing your core when landing. Your head should be aligned with your back hip at landing
  • Below, are two great examples of proper alignment prior to landing (Rachel Garcia) and post-landing (Monica Abbott).
Rachel Garcia - UCLA, Team USA
Rachel Garcia Alignment
Monica Abbott - Tennessee, Team USA
Monica Post-Landing

Stop and Go Variations

Stop and go's have always been one of my favorite drills to help pitcher's understand their body positioning. This is a great drill to work on positional awareness, as mentioned above. You can complete normal stop and go's into a net, or for an added challenge, add a glove snap to finish instead of throwing the ball into a net. Both of these variations are helpful, but I find that an additional glove-snap can help younger pitchers who have a poor understanding of when to release the pitch. I will caution you, young pitchers tend to miss their glove during glove snaps, so it's still helpful to throw in front of a net.

Landing Position Checklist:

  1.  Lower-body positioning

    • Hips are underneath you at landing position. If your head is forward, you will have a difficult time creating proper sequencing.
    • The front toe should land somewhere between 0 and 45 degrees towards the catcher. You should be able to complete a proper lunge from your landing position.
    • Back heel should be up so that you can drag from the top of your toes rather than with the inside of the foot.

  2. Upper-body positioning

    • Arms should be loose and relaxed with a slight bend.
    • Palm and ball should be up towards the sky, allowing the elbow to lead the whip.
    • Your glove should be in line with your body.


  1. Initiate a slight rotation of the hips prior to the arm pulling down. You can initiate this sequence by pulling your front hip backwards (left for right-handed pitchers, and right for left-handed pitchers). This will allow you to start creating proper rotation.
  2. Maintain a proper whip through your pull by leading with the elbow and maintaining proper posture.
  3. Go full speed. If you miss your glove, you miss your glove. It's not the end of the world. Learn to make adjustments as you continue trying this stop and go glove snap variation.

Barefoot Pitching

This is something I have seen from a few different pitching coaches recently, and I decided to try it with my own clients, particularly pitchers who struggle with crow-hopping or have a crashing ankle as they go into their drag. Pitching with no shoes on will allow the pitcher to feel which part of their foot they are driving through, landing on, and dragging with. The more a pitcher can feel what she's doing, the easier it will be for her to understand what adjustments need to be made.

CAUTION: Do not throw at top speed while barefoot. You will fall. Trust me, I speak from experience.

Increase your Run Production with Elite Level Base Running

Base running is an often overlooked aspect of the game. Typically, the only concern coaches and athletes have when it comes to offensive production is how hard or how far they can hit the ball. However, it is important to capitalize on every opportunity presented in the game in order to increase your overall scoring production.

Two main components contribute to making an athlete a good base runner: running mechanics and game awareness. As a former student-athlete, a current certified strength and conditioning specialist, and aspiring physical therapist, I find it important to understand running mechanics in order to minimize injuries and improve overall running efficiency. However, having good mechanics alone won\'t make you a great baserunner. You have to have good knowledge and awareness of the game in order to make smart yet aggressive decisions on the base paths. 

What is Speed?

According to the NSCA, sprint speed is codependence of stride frequency and stride length. Essentially by learning to improve both of those aspects, we should be able to enhance an athlete\'s speed efficiency. Speed efficiency is the ability to use proper mechanics in order to get the maximum amount of benefits per sprint. Additionally, the energy needed to propel you forward at a quick rate is a direct result of how much force you can direct into the ground. This is referred to as ground reaction force and basically means in order to achieve higher outputs (speed), we have to increase the input (force in the ground).

Maximize Speed from Home to First

In the game of softball, a player never reaches her maximum speed due to the length of the base paths. With that being said, learning to maximize running mechanics will help to improve base running performance. Having a good first step out of the box, with good arm movements is important for gaining the initial acceleration needed to reach first base. As I help coach teams on base running, the first thing I notice is most athletes tend to take a \'false step\' or initiate a backward movement with their front foot. Taking unnecessary or false steps will slow a player down by increasing their home to first time, which ultimately decreases their probability of reaching the base safely. Focusing on improving sprinting mechanics will help you maximize your overall baserunning production. Take a look at the videos below to see the difference between good and bad movements out of the box.

Good Form
Good Baserunning Form OOB GIF
Poor Form
Bad Baserunning Form OOB GIF

Base Starts

Baserunning is mostly linear speed. Therefore, you should incorporate aspects of a track sprinters start into your lead-off form. From many years of watching and experiencing baserunning myself, I have found the \"track start\" to be the most successful. Essentially, you are taking the initial starting position of a track athlete and using it on the base baths. Take a look at the picture below to see the specifics of what it should look like. The key takeaways from this position are the shin angle, arm position, and head position. 

Efficient Starting Position
Baserunning lead - good
Inefficient Starting Position
Baserunning lead - bad

Shin Angle

As seen in the picture with proper positioning, the shin is angled forward in comparison to the ground. This will help you to direct your momentum forward rather than straight up. As the ball leaves the pitcher\'s hand and you begin to come off the base, your first couple of steps should be low. Similar to the speed information described previously, the amount of force you put into the ground, you will get back in return. Therefore, if the shin angle is exerting force at an angle less than 90 degrees then the force will be used to drive you towards the next base rather than straight upwards if the angle is greater than 90 degrees. 

Arm Positioning

When sprinting, arm action is just as important as leg drive. Your arms are responsible for the counter-movement of your legs in order to keep your body balanced. With that being said, if the leg drive off the bag is needed to be strong, then our arms are responsible for that same energy potential. In the \"track start\" position our back hand (same side as the lead leg) should be extended behind us while the other is placed on the ground slightly in front of our front foot. We want to make sure our arm action matches our leg drive. You want to use everything you can to gain speed with your arms. Think about \'ripping the ground away\' or swiping the dirt behind you. This shows you are being powerful with your upper body and this drive helps create a change in your acceleration off the bag. 

Head Positioning

Finally, your head position in this stance is critical as you have to keep your eyes on the ball. Often times, kids trying to learn the track start and they have their heads practically upside down. You cannot expect to be early or on time with the ball if your view of the pitcher is disorientated. To stay effective as a baserunner, make sure to keep a balanced head position.  

Base Leads

As far as base running, you want to put yourselves in the best possible position to maximize your sprint speed between base A and base B. When you take a lead off any base, your first three steps should be hard and fast.

You want to make the opposing team believe that you are stealing on every pitch. By making them buy into your hard leads, you might just catch them off guard when you actually do get the sign to steal. When you take your lead, you want to take three hard steps followed by a stop with our toes still pointing towards the next base. Check out the examples below to see the differences between efficient leads and inefficient leads.

Efficient Lead
Efficient Baserunning Lead
Inefficient Lead
Inefficient Lead

You should never square your feet up to the field. Your feet should be going in the desired direction until something tells you otherwise. It could be a put in play, a passed ball that gets behind the catcher, or other play inducing action that forces you to move forward. With your feet in the correct position, your toes and body pointed forward, it is easier to keep moving. However, if your feet are turned squared up to the plate, like most of us are taught at a young age, then you have to waste time to change direction. Again, you are trying to maximize every possible angle, turn, and sprint that you can in order to increase our chances of success on the base path.

Aggressive Mentality

Having talked about the mechanical side of running that contributes to one's baserunning abilities, it's particularly important to stress the benefit of having an aggressive mentality. Too many times when I am watching softball, even at the collegiate level, athletes are satisfied by moving station to station and do not seem to care if they are able to take an extra base. Once you make contact with the ball, you are no longer a hitter, but now a baserunner whose only goal is to score for the team. Nothing is a given in softball, so anytime you can take an extra base, you are putting yourself in a better position to score. Below I've provided a few simple ways to work on your aggressive baserunning:

Baserunning Tips

  • Always keep your head up and watch the defense, even when the ball is not in play.

    • Capitalize on little tendencies, such as a pitcher's feet being out of the circle or a defender with their head down.

  • Think about trying to get two bases ahead of where you are when the ball is hit.

    • If you are standing on first base and a ball is hit to the outfield on the ground, depending on the strength of the outfielders' arms, push the defense to try to throw you out at third base. Often, they will expect you to stop on second and won\'t have time to recover to throw the ball to third in time.

  • Don\'t rely on your coach to make all of the decisions for you.

    • You have two eyes and the ability to read the defense for yourself, so take advantage of everything, including the things they may not see themselves.

  • Know the field conditions you are playing on.

    • If it had just rained and the field is still muddy, know that the ball might be wet when the defender picks it up. This might alter their throw and increase your chances of advancing to the next base.

Be a Game Changer

There are certain things you can do to help improve your speed, but it's important to understand that you do not have to be the fastest athlete to be a successful baserunner. However, you do have to be smart and aggressive on the bases. Ultimately, if you remember anything, just know it takes a perfect throw, a perfect catch, and a perfect tag to make a complete play. As a base runner, take chances and see what kind of chaos you can make in the process.

The Mental Game: Training a Disciplined Brain

Welcome to the first article in our mental game series!  The goal of this series is to provide you with specific information on the mental game, along with easy tips and drills you can practice at home to develop the mental toughness and fortitude you need to be successful.

It\'s important to understand that YOU have control over your brain, the center of everything we think, feel and do.  This means you have the ability to train it to think in ways that are helpful to you, control your emotions, and PERFORM on the field at your best.  Remember though, your brain is with you ALL THE TIME, not just when it\'s game time. That means your brain is in training 24-7. The mentally tough athlete chooses to live a LIFESTYLE of personal accountability, discipline, and self-reflection.

Your Brain is Lazy

Ultimately, your brain is lazy.  It doesn\'t want to work hard and it will do everything it can to keep you from feeling uncomfortable.  It is on a constant hunt for the quickest and easiest form of dopamine it can get. In the simplest explanation, dopamine is a chemical in your brain that makes you feel good! It is connected with pleasure, motivation, and reward.

There are hundreds of immediate dopamine sources around us on a regular basis.  The easiest forms of dopamine may feel good RIGHT NOW, but the effects are not long term.  The difficult paths to dopamine may take longer, it may be uncomfortable, but the reward is greater and the effects are much more impactful.

The Disciplined Brain

Below are some examples of choices you may come across as an athlete.  One option is the easier path that feels good right NOW. The other option takes work, effort, focus, and discipline; but leads to a bigger, longer-lasting reward.  

  • Keeping an easy pace on a timed mile vs. Pushing your pace to your limit
  • Watching Netflix vs. Getting your spin reps in
  • Ice cream, cookies, and sweets vs. Chicken, rice and broccoli
  • Sleeping in as long as possible before school vs. Getting up early, having a nutritious breakfast, and feeling fully awake and energized before school

Every time we make a disciplined choice, our brain learns to expect the disciplined choice a little better.  In other words, good habits are formed and the more disciplined an athlete you become. It\'s important to know that training your brain is a process, just like training your body.  It\'s not going to happen easily right away, it takes commitment and accountability to make the disciplined choice, day after day.

Train your Brain. Discipline.

Train at Home Challenge: Immediate Purposeful Rewards

Allowing yourself to experience small, immediate rewards (in moderation) is important to help maintain a balance in life.  Even the most disciplined athletes allow themselves a donut every now and then. The difference is, the disciplined athlete does it with PURPOSE.

Write down an immediate reward that tends to control you.  Maybe you always go for that soda when you know you should be drinking water, or maybe you allow yourself to be distracted by your phone while you are studying.  Whatever it is, write it down along with exactly when you will allow yourself to experience that reward and for how long. Be specific! Write down the date, time, and for how long.  When the time comes, set a timer and allow yourself to do NOTHING else but enjoy that moment. You will find that you will savor it more, and as a result, may not feel like you need or crave it as much throughout the week.

Good luck!

Learning to Throw a Great Curveball

Curveball: A pitch that is known for having great break, spin, and movement. A very difficult pitch to hit. Also, my FAVORITE pitch to throw, especially as a lefty.

Growing up in Orange, California I was known for throwing hard and jamming all righties as a lefty pitcher, with some up spin. I knew I could throw a curve, but I did not fully understand what my body was doing, how to throw it and how to fully use it to my advantage. But college is when I learned how to properly throw a curveball mechanically and visually. I have to give a HUGE thank you to my collegiate pitching coach, Jennifer Brundage, in my opinion, the BEST pitching coach around!

Utilizing Proper Mechanics

Before they start movement pitches a pitcher needs to MASTER a fastball with good mechanics and spotting locations. Once your pitcher masters a fastball there are many directions one can go. If your pitcher decides on a curveball, it is based off of a GREAT fastball.

Important Concepts:

  • When throwing a curveball, all body movements are the same as a fastball until release.
  • To release the ball properly, snap across your body, under the ball, near your belly button.
  • Visualize creating a bullet spin on the top of the ball.
  • Cross your stride slightly over your powerline - the straight line from the middle of the rubber to the middle of home plate.

    • Lefty pitchers: Right foot over the left of the powerline
    • Righty pitchers: Left foot over the right of the powerline

Crossing your Powerline

Spins and Drills

14" Ball
Zip Ball

Using the 14" ball and the Zipball will allow you to focus on creating the correct wrist positioning and spinning the ball with your fingertips. Try to master self-spins, as I demonstrate above, and then move on to throwing the 14" ball and Zipball to a catcher.

Frisbee Toss GIF
Frisbee Toss

Use the frisbee toss to maintain proper positioning and keep your palm underneath the ball as you work on your curveball spin.

  • The grip can be tricky to pick up on.
  • Grip the frisbee palm up.
  • Place your thumb in the groove on the bottom of the frisbee and wrap your fingers along the top.
  • Throw the frisbee just like you would a softball, focusing on keeping your palm under the frisbee and creating a proper wrist snap.
  • The frisbee should remain flat and curve as it reaches your target.

Mastering your Curveball

As I learned my curveball, it helped me to complete visualization exercises. Everyone's visualization process might be a little different, so try to explore different types of visualization and decide what works best for you. Below, I explain how my visualization process progressed throughout my collegiate and professional career.

As you continue to learn to perfect the spin and placement of your curveball, it's important to commit to the process and keep a positive mindset throughout. Remember, struggles and successes make you who you are. The way you respond to difficult situations not only shapes how you compete in the circle, but also how you perform in life.

The Long-lasting Effects of the Yips

Although I did find solace during my last collegiate game, my experience with the yips was far from over. I mean that in both a physical way, as I have still struggled with the yips as a coach, when throwing BP as well as in other circumstances, but also in understanding that it will always be a part of me and a part of my story. 

As someone who has felt the helplessness of losing control and also the freedom of escaping that hopeless state, I know there are many others who are still searching for the ability to throw freely again. If a few words of advice or shared experience can help, I want to be the one to share. After a wonderful response from my initial article, I wanted to continue telling my story and the different "fixes" and mindset that helped me through it.

Take it Day to Day

As I mentioned above, my experience with the yips did not last just one season. Despite finding myself comfortable in the circle again in my NPF career, there were still pitches that felt a little off. Specifically, when I threw inside dropballs to right-handed hitters, I never quite had the same control that I once did. I sometimes battled the \"please don\'t hit them\" thought in the back of my head, but other times, I knew I was fully in control. 

To me, after the first go-around, this experience was a day to day occurrence, and I imagine it\'s very similar for others. Some days may feel like a breakthrough while others feel neverending. This is why I feel the worst thing you can do when you\'re in the thick of it, is give up or give in to that hopeless feeling. 

You Don't have to Quit

I know you might feel like quitting. You might think, I\'ll be okay without softball, or I can play another position where it won\'t affect me. And you\'re right, you will be okay without softball. We all will have to let the game go at some time or another, but this experience is about so much more than just softball.

If you give up now, when things feel dreadful, you\'ll never know the joy of picking up a ball and throwing freely again. You won\'t experience that ah-ha moment of triumph once you overcome your current obstacle. Most importantly, you may face another circumstance in your life where you feel like quitting, and you will not have this experience in your back pocket to remind you to persevere.

You are Capable

The thing is, you\'re still capable of doing all of the things you\'ve done before. You\'re still physically capable of throwing the ball just as hard, and you can still spin it. All those years of practice have not gone to waste. They did not disappear. Physically, nothing about you has changed, which can be refreshing when you think about it. You did not lose the ability to do what you enjoy, but it feels like you did, and I understand that. I had to will myself into thinking that things would be okay, that I would not let the yips beat me. I knew I was stronger than this obstacle and I had to prove that to myself over and over and over again by continuing to try. So, all I ask is that you give yourself the same chance because one day you\'ll be glad you did. 

Imagine all of the things you can overcome, if you can overcome this feeling of embarrassment, of letting others down, of letting yourself down. Even if it never feels quite the same, it\'s important that you understand that you are good enough and you have to believe in yourself enough and be willing to fight your negative thoughts to try and get through it.

I Thought About Quitting

I can\'t imagine if I would have quit altogether, but I did consider it. It was my senior season, and I hoped to continue playing in the NPF. Then, the yips happened, and I thought, would I be happier if I stopped playing after this season? Would I be happier if I never pitched a softball again? Will teams even want to draft me after seeing that something was off? Even worse, what if they did draft me and I couldn\'t even throw a strike?

Well, they still took a chance on me, and I am so thankful that I did not give up on the sport I\'ve loved for well over a decade. If I would have given up, I wouldn\'t have met so many wonderful teammates, coaches, and competitors who I admire and who have taught me many life lessons.  If I would have quit, I wouldn\'t have been able to share this experience and speak with many other athletes who are contemplating quitting right now, and I also wouldn\'t have been able to overcome the second time that I experienced the yips on a large scale.

There's Something About the Final Season

You heard that right, the yips found me again, and once again it was in my final season, this time as a professional athlete. It was the same dread, the thought of \"not again, I thought this was over\", but this time I had experience, and I knew I could figure things out. One thing I haven\'t mentioned is that the yips did not always affect every pitch I threw. Granted, prior to these struggles, I probably threw my fastball 60-70 percent of the time, so it still affected a lot, but I could still normally throw my curveball and my change-up for strikes.

That is how I got by during my second round with the yips, I threw offspeed (my curveball is also offspeed) nearly every pitch, and when I needed to, I loosened my grip on my fastball and just let it fly. Sometimes the loose grip would help me get the ball somewhere near the plate, enough to make it enticing, but I didn\'t know what side of the plate it would go to or if it would be a little high or low. It wasn\'t a guaranteed strike by any means, but it was enough to give me a small spark of confidence.

It's Worth a Shot

Luckily, a few days after, we had a week-long break. During that week, I went to work on finding a solution. Normally I throw my fastball with a four-seam grip, so I thought, what if I try to grip it like my curveball? I did just that, and it did help. I think somehow, a different grip eased my mind into thinking that it was okay to throw the ball because when I normally gripped the ball this way, I didn\'t have the same jello-like arm. After working on it for a little bit, the pitch became more natural, and eventually, I then started throwing my fastball with a 2-seam grip. Slowly but surely, I gained some confidence back throwing hard strikes again, and since then, things have been closer to normal when I throw to hitters.

What can You Rely On?

So, if you\'re going through this, is there a pitch you can still rely on? Often, I find that many pitchers I\'ve spoken with can still throw their change-up, so why not make the pitch you can throw great. It might just give you the confidence boost to keep going. Finding that first step, that first boost of confidence is a huge key to freeing up your mind to enjoy pitching again. That\'s the big key, you have to find joy in what you\'re doing. It\'s so hard to find joy in this situation, but you can! Small victories lead to big victories, but you can't have small victories without an initial attempt. Quitting is not your answer, and you owe it to yourself to keep trying to find your solution. It won\'t be easy, but I can promise you\'ll learn so much more about yourself through the journey.

The Yips: Losing Control

Wanting to pitch every game quickly turned to hoping that I wasn\'t in the starting line-up. Could I ever feel confident in the circle again? Would pitching ever be the same? Each day, I questioned which version of myself would show up. Will I have control of my arm today or will my hopes of pitching well quickly turn to dread? All of a sudden, what once felt commonplace to me felt so foreign. My arm felt like jello as it went into a whip (the last half of the arm circle). My release felt forced and stiff, and I had to hope and pray that the ball might land somewhere near the strike zone. 

I often returned to my apartment, crying in my car after games. How could this happen? In the previous season, I had pitched the best in my life, and I felt confident beyond belief. Nothing could stop me. Then, after one game, and two hit batters against Georgia Southern, everything changed.

High Hopes, Small Victories, and Frustration

This was my reality in my senior season, the season I had hopes of helping my team return to the World Series, the season I hoped would be my best yet. Unfortunately, that wasn\'t in the cards. Looking from the outside, you might not have realized anything was wrong. My stats were still good, and I pitched often. Watching certain games, you may have even seen a strong performance in the circle because there were still a few great games thrown in the mix. That was the hardest part, there were games of success, of feeling completely myself, and there were games where I had no idea where the ball would land once it left my hand. One of the great games I remember from that season was driven by anger and frustration, two things I was not much accustomed to in my collegiate career. 

Don\'t get me wrong, I experienced plenty of frustration in my bullpens and in games early in my college years, but many opponents knew me as the pitcher who smiled through the good and the bad. That season, I had to learn to pitch with a different kind of concentration and a different motivation.

How did this Happen?

If I had the answer, I\'d surely write about it in hopes that it would help every player ever affected by the yips, but the truth is, I don\'t have the answers. Honestly, I don\'t think anyone does because every player\'s experience with the yips is individualized. I still question what it was that brought it about. I have a few ideas, but I don\'t think I\'ll ever know what the true cause was, or what specific moments lead up to it, but let\'s start with pressure. 

Unreasonable Expectations

I have always put unneeded pressure on myself. Even in high school, if I had twelve strikeouts, I would question why I didn\'t have fifteen. It seems so silly now, but it\'s the truth. No one had higher expectations of me than, well, me. Now, there were certainly times where I didn\'t believe in myself as much as I should have. Confidence is an interesting thing. You could have the highest expectations of yourself, and sometimes you could even meet those expectations but still, somehow you don't feel good enough. This was part of my problem. 

Let\'s rewind to May of 2014, I was named ASA/USA National Player of the Year, and I couldn\'t believe it! In my wildest dreams, I wouldn\'t have thought about being in the same category as the previous nominees, let alone winners. 

Ally Carda, Sierra Romero, and Myself - 2014 USA/ASA POY Finalists
Yips - 2014 POY Finalists

Am I good enough? Do I belong?

Do you want to know what one of the first things I felt was after the excitement and emotion wore off? I felt like I still had to prove that I was good enough. Think about that, we were at the World Series for the first time in ten years, I had already won the award. Yet somehow, I still felt like I didn\'t belong. I still felt that I had to show people I deserved the award I was just handed. 

Outside Negativity

After winning, of course, I opened up social media. Along with many congratulations and positivity, I also found criticism. \"She doesn\'t deserve that award after losing 17-2 against Michigan in game one of super regionals.\" \"She\'s over-rated.\" \"Sierra Romero should have won.\" The negative comments continued, and I gave into them. I agreed, I wasn\'t as good as the other nominees, and I didn\'t deserve this award. Once again, the pressure built, but this time it happened because I was trying to prove to other people, outsiders, that I belonged. 

My thoughts turned into reality in our World Series games. I only made it a few innings against both Oregon and Baylor, and we went two and barbeque. That might be where my yips problems all started. The pressure to succeed, driven by my personal perception, remained a constant burden. I proved to myself that I wasn\'t good enough, but I was going to change that. My mission for my senior season was to help guide us back to the World Series. 

USA Trials

Fast forward to January 2015. I was invited to Team USA try-outs after not making the team in the summer of 2014. During one session of the try-out, the pitchers were asked to throw live to bunters. I threw every single ball into the dirt. I could not make an adjustment, and my arm had a jello-like feeling each time I released the ball. A coach asked me, \"haven\'t you thrown BP before, don\'t you do this at practice?\" I had never had a problem throwing to bunters before, but each time the ball bounced into the dirt, my embarrassment multiplied. I felt fine for the remainder of tryouts, and I thought I pitched well, but I was devastated when I didn\'t make the team, and I couldn\'t help but return to the embarrassment I felt in that moment.

Later on, I learned that the yips are at times caused by a traumatic event. Would I really consider that traumatic? No, but the embarrassment was real. When thinking of how this process started, I always return to that moment, when I had the first sense that something was off. 

Sharing the Burden - Opening Up

After our home opener during my senior season, the same problem started to show up in games. I couldn't throw a strike with my fastball/ dropball. I would throw the ball in the dirt, over the catchers head, I hit batters, and I even threw the ball behind a hitter on a few occasions.

Support System

With the help of my coaches, we went to work combatting my yips. We reached out to specialists, and sports psychologists as well as former players who battled similar circumstances. I even spoke with a sports psychologist that specialized in the Emotional Freedom Technique involving tapping to alleviate stress, but I couldn\'t buy into it. Although I wanted to work through the problem, it didn\'t feel like that was the right route for me. It wasn\'t until I started opening up to teammates and others about what I was feeling, that pitching started to feel less like work and more like fun again. 

Shared Experience

Once I admitted to myself and to my teammates that something was off, I no longer felt the need to hide. That's when things started to lighten up. I spoke with Eileen Canney, a former pitcher at Northwestern who once experienced the yips throwing overhand. I felt the biggest sense of relief after speaking with someone who shared a similar experience. Knowing that I wasn't alone meant the world to me, and I believe it might be one of the toughest parts of the yips. You can't explain the feeling to anyone who hasn't experienced it. It's not the same as simply walking batters or missing your spots, it's a complete loss of control. It's feeling helpless in a sport that once felt like home. 

Victory in Defeat

Throughout the remainder of the season, things were far from perfect, but they did get better. After starting the first game of our Regional opener, I was pulled after the 4th inning or so after walking multiple batters. After that, I didn't pitch again until game three of our Super Regional against Tennessee.

Sitting on the bench was far different than competing in the circle, but I'm thankful I got to experience moments of huge growth during the regionals and super regionals for my battery mate, Jessica Burroughs. Eventually, I got my chance to pitch in game three of our super regional.

Feeling Free

I'm not sure if it was the weight of possibly pitching the final game of my career as a Seminole, or knowing my team needed a strong performance in the circle to advance, but I finally found some normalcy in the circle. As the game wore on, my arm felt less like jello and more natural. I was confident in my pitches and knew exactly what I wanted to throw. We lost the game 2-1, and I was devastated that our season was over. I would never pitch again in a Florida State jersey, but I finally felt like myself in the circle, and I knew there was more softball in my future.

Growth Through Struggle

If you asked me to change the circumstances, to go back and redo my senior year without this speed bump, I'm not sure if I would. Half of me still wonders what could have been had I thrown normally and naturally during my senior year. Would my collegiate career have ended differently? Would I have performed better in the NPF?

Impacting Others

I'll be honest, I don't think I ever got back the exact same confidence in the circle that I once had, but I don't think I'd choose to go back if I could. I learned so much about myself and my identity through my struggles. Sharing my story with others who've experienced something similar is so special, and as I mentioned before, a shared experience can make all the difference. I'm not done sharing, and I know there are far more players that I can help in the future. Most importantly, I hope I can encourage others to share their stories and know that perfection is not the goal. Be okay with 98% perfect in whatever you do. Searching for that last 2% might be what's getting in your way.